Theoretically, the manufacture of fur raw materials can begin almost immediately after removal. But practically it is impossible to do for certain reasons. Firstly, it is logistics, because sometimes the distances from fur farms to fur processing factories can be thousands of kilometers. To transport raw materials in refrigerators over such distances is a rather risky occupation, and on cheap types of fur it is still not economically feasible. Secondly, there is such a thing as a minimum start at the fur processing facilities, therefore it is required to form batches, and some types of raw materials still have to be sorted, which in turn takes a certain amount of precious time. In order to gain time and save raw materials, the skins undergo a conservation process before they get to the dressing.
There are several ways to preserve fur raw materials. One of them is to dry the raw materials on the hoop, the skins that have undergone this type of preservation are called dry. The second method that can be found on the market is called wet-salted or simply wet-salt. Here the skins are treated with salt with antiseptics and suspended in a cool room to make the glass excess moisture. Theoretically, some "experts" claim that they can store “salted skins” for a year and a half. It is difficult to dispute, if you set a goal, then you can store it for up to ten years, as in the field, the only question is what quality of the skin after dressing you will receive, trying to save the raw material for so long. As practice shows, the storage time of wet-salted skins is very limited, and in order to achieve a positive result in the process of dressing, the launch into operation takes place as soon as possible.
To conserve fur raw materials and prepare it for dressing, you must perform a number of labor-intensive technological processes. Depending on the type of fur, the processes for processing the skin after removal may be slightly different. But if to speak in simple language, then at first the fur raw materials are degreased. After the skin has been removed, all the sebum is removed, since the fat that is not removed prevents moisture from evaporating, which in turn can lead to skin leather and a decrease in storage strength.
Next, the raw material is run-in on leather, and some types of furs and on the hair with sawdust in order to remove the remaining fat. Since the residual fat can change the color of the hair coat or leave spots that during dressing are either difficult or impossible to remove. And only after all the fat has been removed, there is an edit on a special hoop, and then drying. Immediately it should be noted that drying the corrected hides near the kiln, above the kilns, in the sun can lead to the complete unsuitability of the raw material for further processing. With intensive drying using high temperatures, the raw material is welded (baked skins), it is quite difficult to distinguish such products in a dry form, but when starting to make products, the skins simply fall apart during the process of soaking.
In a drying room, the microclimate should be maintained between 25-30 ° C, and the humidity in the region of 40-60%. In case of violation of the recommended mode, a decrease in the quality of the skins may occur, for example, the skins will give more shrinkage of the leather, hair will become very tough, or vice versa will lose elasticity, which will reduce its quality. In case of insufficient temperature, the raw materials may mold and rot. Before removing the dry skins from the rules, they are examined for the presence of sticking fat on the leather fabric and removed, then the process of veaming (moistening) takes place in a special room with high humidity and low temperature. After that, the raw material once again goes through several kickbacks in the drums with sawdust, is cleared of sawdust in the trellis drum, then it is checked and, if necessary, combed hair.
As you can see, the technology of preserving fur raw materials is quite a complex laborious process, requiring certain knowledge and skills, special equipment and facilities capable of supporting a certain microclimate. Large fur farms and hunting grounds have all the necessary conditions for high-quality preservation and storage of their products, they know like no one else that proper preservation with the observance of technology directly affects the quality of finished products after tanning. But in addition to conservation, the final result is affected by the conditions of storage and transportation.
As a rule, the time interval between conservation and dressing of raw materials is stored in procurement offices. They are interested in its storage, have specially equipped rooms, substances for combating parasites, and most importantly experience in the storage of fur raw materials. Usually skins purchased from the supplier in a short time are brought on the manufacture and start to be worked on in the shortest possible time. But warehouses are not rubber and, as practice shows, there are cases of forced storage of conserved raw materials outside the procurement organizations. Here we must immediately understand that a long period of time for the preservation of tinned raw fur ensures that the recommended conditions are met and during forced storage these periods are greatly reduced.
What are the recommended conditions, you ask? First of all, it is temperature and relative humidity. I do not want to use dry figures from textbooks, that the storage temperature should be 20-30 ° C, and the humidity should be 55-65%. This is all a theory, especially for different types of fur for different specialists, these figures can change and comply with such conditions during forced storage, it is quite problematic without specially equipped premises. Let's talk in a simpler language from a practical point of view.
If you start to melt raw materials, you should not wait for the cold, it is required to immediately give it to the launch for manufacture. Very often in factories for processing fur products such raw materials are called resuscitation, they enter into the position of the customer and start to work in the shortest possible time.
So, we already know that for forced storage of fur raw materials a dry, cool and preferably dark room is required. But the main enemy in the storage of fur raw materials are rodents, moth, and other parasites. How to deal with them large companies procurers to ensure the long preservation of dry raw materials? Everything is very simple, the raw material is sorted, it is folded into a specially equipped disinfected room, checkers are placed with certain substances to combat insects and the room is sealed. A can is practically created, where the products are waiting for their customers, and the procedure is repeated if necessary. Smaller procurers do prophylaxis of the premises a couple of times a year in spring and summer, for example, they treat it with an aqueous solution of chlorophos. Constantly shift raw materials, inspect the goods for the presence of insects and, if necessary, process it.
But how to ensure the storage of the skins at home, for example, in a garage or utility rooms? Well, it is understandable with rodents, cats still know how to catch mice and rats. But with insects we will have to turn to the textbook of biology. It says that insects die at temperatures of -10 ° C, and do not die at 7-10 ° C, but they do not reproduce and are not able to feed, and therefore do not cause harm to our skins. It is logical to assume that the preservation of dry raw materials in late autumn, in winter, and in early spring at home is possible. But in the summer of struggle with insects turn into a living hell for you. By applying pesticides from agriculture or spraying dichlorvos in the garage, you will quickly poison yourself and your neighbors than you can do with insects. It is more rational and economically feasible to plan your actions in advance and avoid storing dry goods at home in the summer. It is easier to give raw materials for dressing in small batches, especially in fur processing factories, including Alyans-fur, there are rooms that support the microclimate for the preservation of fur raw materials, and experienced specialists will be able to assess the state of your products and make a launch as soon as possible.
In late autumn and winter, it is impossible to dry the skins on the hoops in unheated utility rooms. This is one of the main reasons for the appearance of wet-salted raw materials on the market, plus the method of preservation is much easier and faster than drying on the hoop. With high-quality preservation, there should be no excess meat on the skins, they should be abundantly treated with salt. Immediately it should be clarified that the abundant treatment with salt does not mean that the raw materials should be put in a bag of salt, it must be rubbed with salt several times, allowed to drain off excess moisture and rub again with salt. It also makes no sense to preserve the skins with meat, in which case you can preserve meat, and not fur raw materials.
The method of wet-salted conservation can most often be found in the cold season on fur raw materials obtained by hunting, such as fox, muskrat, otter, beaver, wild mink, and ferret. Also in the market you can find wet-salted skins of a rabbit, slaughtered in the winter. Nutria work with wet-salted raw materials all year round; you can find out more in this article.
What are the disadvantages of a wet-salted preservation? First of all, these are short storage periods and difficult conditions for the safety of raw materials. The recommended storage conditions at a temperature of 0-5 ° C, theoretically allowed to 20 ° C, but here you should remember the rule, the higher the temperature, the shorter the shelf life. It is not recommended to freeze and store in freezers, leather can lose strength. The second reason is that if the preservation is made in haste and the hair is dirty, then it is difficult to assess the quality of the fur. Thirdly, the goods are heavy and perishable, making it difficult to transport over long distances. Although as they say it would be a goal and responsibility. In practice, there were people who managed in the hot summer to transport on the Zhiguli with a trailer at a distance of 800 km wet-salted raw nutria, while using ordinary ice. The skin came in good condition and was not a problem in the process of manufacture.
What are the advantages of working with wet-salted? If in two words - it is speed and quality. Since the shelf life of wet raw materials is limited, small batches are assembled and put into operation rather quickly. This is how quickly, with a properly constructed work plan, a lack of shelf life can be turned into advantages. I will not delve into organic chemistry, but with wet-solo skins it is easier to soak, which in turn allows you to achieve a cleaner, more elastic and airy leather fabric, especially on such types of fur as beaver, otter, ferret. Working with wet-salted is not as scary as it may seem at first glance, you just need to stipulate in advance with the production of processing of fur, when and how much they are ready to put into operation and already having this information to purchase or procure a batch of raw materials.
P.S. At one time I was asked a question. Why is it that in Finland, 500 tails of arctic fox are put into production and 500 are produced? Is there a percentage rejection in Ukraine? Do not know how? No, just we can! And that is why the percentage of rejection is so small. In Ukraine, for more than 10 years, fur processing factories are not inferior in quality to their foreign counterparts, while the price is much lower. The answer to the question lies on the surface and is very simple. Probably there is no rejection rate, because the tails arrived at Finnish dressing immediately after conservation and were not transported for thousands of kilometers before getting into dressing. In any case, I want to bring the main idea to people, especially those who are just beginning to learn and get acquainted with the fur industry. Initially, the preservation of fur raw materials was intended for transportation, sorting and batching, and not for marketing moves, storage for two to three years, in anticipation of a better price. !!! FUR is an expensive and valuable resource, not an auction exchange. When buying raw materials you must understand that the quality of conservation, transportation, and most importantly storage directly affects the quality of the skins after tanning. Regardless of the type of preservation, always try to shorten the shelf life as much as possible and donate raw materials for manufacture as quickly as possible so that they can be put into operation. In turn, the specialists of the factory “Alyans-fur” guarantee an individual approach and the struggle for the safety of each of your skins and will do everything possible to ensure that you are satisfied with the quality of taking the finished products.